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Welcome to this week's edition of the Computer Kindergarten Newsletter.
Today is Sunday, September 28, 2014

In this Issue:
Special Feature: ATM Skimmers Explained: How to Protect Your ATM Card
Special Feature: Windows 8.1 – More Options from the Start Button
Special Feature: Intro to the Mac - Mac OS X Mavericks - Finder Tabs
Today's Topic: Windows 7 - Change Your Default Browser
Question: Update your iPhone, iPad, Or iPod Touch To iOS 8
Websites of Interest: Fall Colors 2014; National Coffee Day Freebies; Senior Law; Do It Yourself Halloween Decorations


Special Feature: ATM Skimmers Explained: How to Protect Your ATM Card

From howtogeek.com

An “ATM skimmer” is a malicious device criminals attach to an ATM. When you use an ATM that’s been compromised in such a way, the skimmer will create a copy of your card and capture your PIN.

If you use ATMs, you should be aware of these attacks. It’s often possible to spot ATM skimmers, or at least to protect your PIN so ATM skimmers won’t be able to capture it.

How ATM Skimmers Work

An ATM skimmer has two components. The first is a small device that’s generally inserted over the ATM card slot. When you insert your ATM card, the device creates a copy of the data on the magnetic strip of your card. The card passes through the device and enters the machine, so everything will appear to be functioning normally –but your card data has just been copied.

The second part of the device is a camera. A small camera is placed somewhere it can see the keypad — perhaps at the top of the ATM’s screen, just above the number pad, or to the side of the pad. The camera is pointed at the keypad and it captures you entering your PIN. The ATM appears to be functioning normally, but the attackers just copied your card’s magnetic strip and your PIN.

The attackers can use this data to program a bogus ATM card with the magnetic strip data and use it in ATM machines, entering your PIN and withdrawing money from your bank accounts.

ATM skimmers are becoming more and more sophisticated. Instead of a device fitted over a card slot, a skimmer may be a small, unnoticeable device inserted into the card slot itself.

Instead of a camera pointed at the keypad, the attackers may be using an overlay — a fake keyboard fitted over the real keypad. When you press a button on the fake keypad, it logs the button you pressed and presses the real button underneath. These are harder to detect. Unlike a camera, they’re also guaranteed to capture your PIN.

ATM skimmers generally store the data they capture on the device itself. The criminals have to come back and retrieve the skimmer to get the data it’s captured. However, more ATM skimmers are now transmitting this data wirelessly over Bluetooth or even cellular data connections.

How to Spot ATM Skimmers

Here are some tricks for spotting ATM skimmers. You can’t spot every ATM skimmer, but it won’t hurt to take a quick look around before withdrawing money.

- Jiggle the Card Reader: If the card reader moves around when you try to jiggle it with your hand, something probably isn’t right. A real card reader should be attached to the ATM so well that it won’t move around — a skimmer overlaid over the card reader may move around.
- Look at the ATM Machine: Take a quick look at the ATM machine. Does anything look a bit out-of-place? Perhaps the bottom panel is a different color from the rest of the machine because it’s a fake piece of plastic placed over the real bottom panel and the keypad. Perhaps there’s an odd-looking object that contains a camera.
- Examine the Keypad: Does the keypad look a bit too thick, or different from how it usually looks if you’ve used the machine before? It may be an overlay over the real keypad.
- Check for Cameras: Consider where an attacker might hide a camera — somewhere above the screen or keypad, or even in the brochure holder on the machine.

If you find something seriously wrong — a card reader that moves, a hidden camera, or a keypad overlay — be sure to alert the bank or business in charge of the ATM. If something just doesn’t seem right with the machine, go find another ATM machine.

Basic Security Precautions

You can find common, cheap ATM skimmers with tricks like attempting to jiggle the card reader. But here’s what you should always do to protect yourself when using any ATM machine:

- Shield Your PIN With Your Hand: When you type your PIN into an ATM machine, shield the PIN pad with your hand. Yes, this won’t protect you against the most sophisticated skimmers that use keypad overlays, but you’re much more likely to run into an ATM skimmer that uses a camera — they’re much cheaper for criminals to purchase. This is the number one tip you can use to protect yourself.
- Monitor Your Bank Account Transactions: You should regularly check your bank accounts and credit card accounts online. Check for suspicious transactions and notify your bank as quickly as possible. You want to catch these problems as soon as possible — don’t wait until your bank mails you a printed statement a month after money has been withdrawn from your account by a criminal.

An alert system your bank might offer can also help here, notifying you when unusual transactions take place.


Special Feature: Windows 8.1 – More Options from the Start Button

From microsoft.com

In the lower-left corner of the desktop you'll see the Start button. You can tap or click the Start button to get to the Start screen, or you can press and hold or right-click it to see a menu of quick and advanced options—you can do things like shut down and sign out, get to Control Panel and Task Manager, or open a Command Prompt window.

The Start button is always available, so you can get to these menu options from anywhere—the desktop, an app, or even the Start screen or Apps view. If you don't see it, move your mouse to the lower-left corner, and the Start button will appear.

In our next newsletter: Windows 8.1 – Getting Around


Special Feature: Intro to the Mac - Mac OS X Mavericks - Finder Tabs

From gcflearnfree.org
To Open a New Finder Tab:

Open Finder, click File in the Menu bar, and then select New Tab. Alternatively, you can press Command+T on your keyboard.

The new tab will appear.
Changing the View, Arrangement, and Sort Options

OS X allows you to change the way folder contents are displayed by changing the view, arrangement, and sort options. This makes it easier to find the specific file that you're looking for.
View Options
Finder has four different view options to choose from. You may prefer to use just one all the time, or you can switch between them whenever you want.

Icon View: This is the default view. It displays the folder contents as large icons.
List View: This displays a vertical list of folder contents, along with details about each item.
Column View: This shows the current folder in a column, with the parent folder in another column to the left. If the Finder window is large enough, it will display several levels of folders, allowing you to see the location of the current folder. If you select a file, it will display a preview of the file to the right of the columns.
Cover Flow: This is similar to List View, but at the top of the window there is a preview of the folder contents. Using your keyboard's arrow keys, you can easily flip through all of the files in the folder without actually opening them.

No matter which view you're in, you can preview a file by pressing the space bar on your keyboard. This is known as Quick Look. It works with most common file types, but not all.
To Change the Item Arrangement:

With OS X, you can group folder contents by file type, application, date, size, or tag. This is very useful when you have a lot of files in a folder.

Click the Item Arrangement button and select the desired arrangement.
The folder contents will now be arranged into groups.

To remove the grouping, simply change the item arrangement to None.
To Sort in List View and Cover Flow:

If you are in List View or Cover Flow, you can sort the folder contents. This is similar to item arrangement, except it only puts the contents in order and doesn't group them. You can't use sorting and item arrangement at the same time, so you'll need to make sure the item arrangement is set to None.

Click a column header to sort by that column. For example, you can click the Size column header to sort by file size.

If you don't see the column you want, you can right-click any column header to select the columns that you want to show.


Today's Topic: Windows 7 - Change Your Default Browser

Do you like to use Internet Explorer? If not, you can change to Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome. Here are the steps:

Make Chrome your default browser

If you like how Google Chrome works, make it your default browser! By doing so, future links you click will automatically open in Google Chrome. Follow these steps to set Google Chrome as your default browser:

1. Click the Chrome menu (the button with 3 horizontal lines in the top right corner) on the browser toolbar.
2. Select Settings.
3. In the "Default browser" section, click Make Google Chrome the default browser.

Make Firefox Your Default Browser

1. At the top of the Firefox window, click on the Firefox button (Tools menu in Windows XP) and then
2. Click Options (or on a Mac, in the Menu bar, select Preferences).
3. Select the Advanced panel, click the General tab and then under the System Defaults section, click the “Check Now” button.
4. When prompted, click “Yes” to set Firefox as the default.

Make Internet Explorer Your Default Browser

If you decide to go back to IE, here are the steps:

1. Open Internet Options. From the Start menu, go to Control Panel, then click Network and Internet.
2. Once in Internet Options, click on the Programs tab, then select Set your default programs.
3. In the Programs bar to the left, select Internet Explorer, then click Set this program as default.

Your new default browser will be Internet Explorer.


Question: Update your iPhone, iPad, Or iPod Touch To iOS 8

From apple.com

iOS software updates introduce new features that let you do even more with your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. Be sure to keep your devices up to date so that you don't miss out on the latest features.

Before you make any updates, back up your device to iCloud or iTunes. (http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1766)

Make sure your device has enough available space to install the update. Tap Settings > General > Usage to see how much space your content uses. Use iTunes to create space if you don't have enough, or remove content from your device. (http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1386)

If you’re updating from iOS 4.3.x or earlier, you need to update using iTunes.

Update Your Device Wirelessly

The easiest way to update your device is wirelessly, also called “over the air.” Here’s how:

1. Plug in your device to a power source.
2. Tap Settings > General > Software Update.
3. Tap "Download and Install" to download the update. Updates might download automatically while your device is connected to Wi-Fi and a power source.
4. Tap Install when the download completes if you want to complete it now. Tap Later to install the update later. If your device is passcode enabled, it will ask you to enter the passcode before installing the update.

Update Your Device Using ITunes

If you can’t update wirelessly, or if you want to update with iTunes, follow the steps below.

1. Install the latest version of iTunes on your computer.
2. Plug in your device to your computer.
3. In iTunes, select your device.
4. In the Summary pane, click "Check for Update."
5. Click "Download and Update."

Can my iPhone or iPad run iOS 8? Here is a full list of compatible devices. Plus: Should I upgrade my iPhone 4s to iOS 8?


Websites of Interest:

Fall Colors 2014
From the U.S. Forest Service, plan your Fall leaf looking tours with the help of their website.

National Coffee Day Freebies
Here’s where you can get a free cup on Monday, 9/29.

Senior Law
This site, created by attorneys, includes a wealth of information for all seniors.

Do It Yourself Halloween Decorations
It’s just a little more than a month away. Get started on pumpkin carving, witch crafts, spooky candles and ghoulish gourds. There’s help at this site.